cognitive theories of learning
Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory conceptualizes cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes as they relate to human motivation and behavior.
Social cognitive theory was founded on the social learning theory proposed by N. E. Miller and J. Dollard in 1941 [ 8 ]. Early social learning theorists were heavily influenced by behaviorism and drive reduction principles. In 1963 Albert Bandura and Richard Walters extended social learning theory by stressing that observational learning is a natural occurrence. They also stressed that reinforcement controls performance, not learning, and that learning can happen vicariously. Bandura’s work also developed the importance of self-beliefs in learning behaviors. With the 1986 publication of his book Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory [ 2 ], Bandura made a clear distinction between his theory, which emphasizes the important role of.
In the classroom
Relevant activities include review and revision, class vocabulary bags, using a scaffolding approach with young learners, analysis and discussion of language and topics, inductive approaches and learner training.
A cognitive theory of learning sees second language acquisition as a conscious and reasoned thinking process, involving the deliberate use of learning strategies. Learning strategies are special ways of processing information that enhance comprehension, learning or retention of information. This explanation of language learning contrasts strongly with the behaviourist account of language learning, which sees language learning as an unconscious, automatic process.