Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory conceptualizes cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes as they relate to human motivation and behavior.
Social cognitive theory was founded on the social learning theory proposed by N. E. Miller and J. Dollard in 1941 [ 8 ]. Early social learning theorists were heavily influenced by behaviorism and drive reduction principles. In 1963 Albert Bandura and Richard Walters extended social learning theory by stressing that observational learning is a natural occurrence. They also stressed that reinforcement controls performance, not learning, and that learning can happen vicariously. Bandura’s work also developed the importance of self-beliefs in learning behaviors. With the 1986 publication of his book Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory [ 2 ], Bandura made a clear distinction between his theory, which emphasizes the important role of.
This view leads to a classroom focus on using learning strategies that have been observed in successful language learners and to a view of the learner as an ‘information-processor’, with limitations as to how much new information can be retained, and who needs strategies to be able to transfer information into memory.
In the classroom
Relevant activities include review and revision, class vocabulary bags, using a scaffolding approach with young learners, analysis and discussion of language and topics, inductive approaches and learner training.
The theory concerns the emergence and acquisition of schemata – schemes of how one perceives the world – in “developmental stages”, times when children are acquiring new ways of mentally representing information.
Although there is no general theory of cognitive development, the most historically influential theory was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980).
Bandura, Albert – Social Learning Theory
Popper, Karl – distinguishing science from non-science