Air Pollution Problem in South Korea

The air pollution problem in South Korea is very prominent in such a way that it supersedes other issues or causes of concern in the country like economic stagnation, natural disasters, and the threat of nuclear-armed North Korea. South Korea’s polluted air is in extents that outmatch its industrialized peers, and this is a result of domestically coal-fired power plants and vehicle emissions, as well as pollutants that come from other neighboring countries like China and North Korea.

The level of air pollution in the Asian country is so high that workers have to wear masks and sometimes remain indoors to avoid inhaling particulate matter. The high levels of concentrated pollutants in the air also mean that people cannot move around freely, or even walk their pets, or even spend a lot of time outside.

Fine Dust

The issue of fine dust has weighed in on South Koreans, thanks to industrial emissions from China and within that continue to pollute the air. The upper air stream of the country remains heavily contaminated with fine dust, and there have been discussions on creating artificial rain to address the heavy pollution in the country.

Early this year, the country witnessed high levels of fine toxic dust and particulate matter. The issue has only continued to get worse, and authorities in major cities across the Asian industrial power have instituted emergency measures with the goals of reducing emissions. Further, discussions are in progress which could lead to research on how to arrest the pollution problem.

Sources of Emissions and Pollutants

The high levels of concentrated pollutants, fine dust, and particulate matter in South Korea raise some very critical questions about how these emissions get into the atmosphere. A significant source of these emissions is China since most of the particulate matter and emissions come from industrial clusters that are on China’s east coast. Increases in industrial activity on these clusters correspond with increases in pollutants in South Korea.

The industrial activity in South Korea also remains a key source of the particulate matter in the upper airstream. Further, continued investment in China’s companies by South Korea has exacerbated the situation, since emissions and pollutants find their way back to South Korea.

Particulate matter, fine dust, and the aggregate concentrated pollutants often lead to haze and smog, which is not only detrimental to the South Korean populace, but also the country’s attractiveness to other citizens and visitors.

The Problem Is Cyclical

There are times when air pollution becomes extreme, and the atmosphere becomes full of haze and smog, and there are times when all settles down, and the level of fine dust and particulate matter reduces. When the atmosphere is full of concentrated pollutants and smog is all over, there is a lot of outrage from the citizenry, who demand government action. The situation becomes the mainstay of many media outlets.

After some time, the situation eases, and the public stops the outrage against the issue. This, coupled with other factors, has hindered concrete action against the air pollution problem in South Korea. The government also goes with the public tide and announces steps to curb the problem when there is a lot of haze and smoke and poor atmospheric conditions.

Air Purifiers and Masks

South Korea citizens have taken steps to reduce the inhalation of fine dust and particulate matter. Among the actions taken is the use of air purifiers and masks. There has been a spike in business activity associated with the manufacture of air purifiers and masks in South Korea, and companies that engage in this business have witnessed increased revenues and performing shares.

Most employees who go to work in the morning and the evening use masks to reduce the inhalation of fine dust and particulate matter.

Health Hazards

The health risks associated with air pollution in South Korea are numerous. South Koreans risk contracting lung complications and other diseases like cancer. Some particulate matter and fine dust find its way through the skin, and this results in skin ailments, and could also result in other diseases associated with the skin.

Other complications like inflammation in the brain arise from the toxic and polluted air, and folks who have to deal with it daily, due to work or other outdoor activities face the risk of contracting different assortments of diseases and complications.

In summary, the industrial activity in South Korea and more so China is contributing significantly to the air pollution problem in South Korea. South Korea, which is a member country of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – a bloc of countries that stimulates global trade and economic progress. In this particular bloc, South Korea leads in terms of countries with the worst air quality.

Folks in South Korea continue to directly breath toxic air and polluted air as days go by, and this situation may lead to complications in the health of these folks, which may come to have a toll on the country’s health infrastructure.

The air pollution problem continues to inconvenience workers and other people in different capacities and stature in society since they have to live with the problem. Government efforts have not adequately addressed the issue, though continued efforts give citizens hopes of better days to come.

Three Biggest Problems With Marine Pollution

Marine pollution is the biggest threats to life in the ocean, and by extension, a threat to a key source of food for the human population. Plastics, discharged industrial effluent, residential waste, oil spills from tankers in the high seas and chemicals are the major pollutants in the oceans. Worth noting is that a significant portion of these pollutants is entirely the work of man and that they originate from land. There’s a lot information about earth pollutions you can read in the essay on pollutions.

Marine pollution has a devastating impact on marine life since it makes the ocean inhabitable for marine life. The result is that most marine life die due to extreme conditions, which has ripple effects in the ecosystem that lives underwater.

These areas where marine life is unsustainable are referred to as dead-zones since these regions lack of oxygen, and without oxygen, marine life cannot survive. Statistics indicate that these dead zones, cumulatively, are in the order of 500, and projections suggest that the number is highly likely to increase due to wanton marine pollution.

Disruption and Loss of Marine Life

A lot of marine pollution comes from the land. Plastics form the most significant portion of marine pollutants in the ocean. With the rise of large cities with proximity to the oceans, more and more plastics are finding their way to the oceans and seas day in day out. The numbers indicate that an upwards of eight million tons of plastic find its way to the oceans every year. What exacerbates the situation is that the disposal of plastic in the ocean is exponential, while there are intangible efforts to clean and get rid of the plastic in the polluted oceans and seas.

Microplastics in the sea are the result of washed up particles of plastics when it rains. Plastics and microplastics hugely disrupt marine life. Plastics choke aquatic flora and fauna by blocking airspaces that allow for the efficient exchange of respiratory gases. Like other living things, marine life cannot survive without air. In some cases, these plastics clog the digestive tracts of marine animals, and in some cases, turtles, in particular, become entangled in plastic debris, which inhibits their movement, thus leading to death.

Risks to Humans

The oceans and seas are a critical resource for humans. Humans depend on the oceans for fish and other aquatic food. Marine pollution affects humans in two dimensions. When microplastics or plastics find their way to the oceans and seas, they choke marine life, fish included, causing them to die and reduce in number. In such cases, there is a disruption in the supply of fish in the human food chain, and humans get little fish to consume.

Further, when these fish and aquatic animals consume these microplastics, they are ingested, and they remain in their bodies. The non-biodegradable nature of these plastics and microplastics make them stay in the animal’s body without degradation for some time, and when this gets to humans in the form of food, it could pose health risks to humans.

This could result in the emergence of unforeseen outbreaks and diseases, which could lead to poor health on the part of humans.

Disruption of Coral Reefs

Oil spills disrupt coral reefs since the thick layer of oil keeps floating on the water surface. Oil prevents air from getting into the water and equally prevents sunlight from effectively penetrating to the lower beds of the sea. Since coral reefs are essentially huge structures under the water that consist of skeletons of corals, these reefs face massive disruption in the event of oil spills, since the resources that allow for their effective growth become unavailable or little in supply.

Also, oil and toxic spills get in the feathers of birds that are part of the marine ecosystem, as well as gills of other marine animals. Oil spills are destructive to marine life, and whenever they occur, the chances are high that a lot of aquatic life will die due to the disruption of the supply of crucial resources like air and sunlight, which impairs their ability to make food and to live.

In summary, marine pollution has significant effects on marine life as well as humans. However, these effects have not been a deterrent to marine polluters. Increasingly, pollution in the oceans and seas increases daily, and the steps taken to clean the oceans do not match the rate at which these oceans take in pollutants.

Marine pollution has a substantial economic, health, and social cost to humans, and these costs, with time, will weigh in on humans. Significant drops in marine food will result in shocks and disruptions in human food, since fish and aquatic animals remain an abundant large source of food, protein in particular, for a significant number of humans.

The other effect that humans will have to bear is the emergence of diseases and outbreaks due to contaminated marine food. When oil spills happen, fish are affected. The oil sticks on their gills, and in some cases, they ingest the oil. When that fish makes its way into human food, the chances of falling ill from stomach complications or getting cancer are high.

 

World Cultures

In a means to illustrate the different perceptions of culture, the author draws an analogy from the domesticated and undomesticated animals. Culture is the common explanation people give for the differences between societies. For instance, when two societies differ regarding material possessions, societies, historians, and anthropologists have the propensity to attribute the variances on cultural differences. According to the Anna Karenina principle, there are several qualities animals ought to satisfy to make them domesticable. As such, it is imperative to comprehend the aspects the author strived to communicate regarding civilization and culture.

Drawing from the Anna Karenina theory, there are six distinct features of domesticable animals, i.e., not carnivorous, must proliferate, comfortable living in captivity, nasty disposition, tend to panic in danger, and used to herding. Following these characteristics, the number of domesticated in quite small at around 14. Human beings can take advantage of the accessible resources. As such, if given a chance, they could breed the available animals irrespective of region. The author tries to explain why their more domesticated animals in Eurasia than Sub-Saharan Africa. It is not about the cultural variances or beliefs; instead, the difference emanates from the material differences. In other words, Eurasia was home to many animals, most of which are not available in Africa. Therefore, the fact that people from one region domesticated more animals than others does not revolve around cultural differences but the availability of the animals.

The writer purports that availability of large, domesticable animals can be ascribed to the geographical “luck of the draw” and not individual human capabilities. On the other hand, the lack of these large domesticable animals in Africa led to limited agricultural practices. As such, the author wants the reader to comprehend the fact that the variances in possessions across the globe were stimulated by the absence of some resources. Regarding civilization, some countries prospered more than others due to the accessibility of resources. Therefore, civilization and culture did not develop along the same lines.

The article is structured into three main sections. The first part dwells on the qualifications of domesticated animals, the second addressing why some animals and practices thrive in specific regions more than others, and the final part shows why civilization and culture development varied in the areas. As elucidated above, there are six key features utilized from the ancient days to identify a domesticable animal. The main reason agriculture thrives in Eurasia is due to the favorable climate. Evidently, agriculture is contingent on climate and tends to diffuse faster in areas that lie within the same latitude, since they have a similar environment. As such, farmers adopt identical techniques making the diffusion process much quicker. The author manages to merge all these three aspects to convey the central notion that material differences are to be accredited for the different practices across the globe.

Drawing from the six features of domesticable animals, all civilizations and cultures domesticated the same animals depending on whether they were available. The different domestication practices also led to the diverse agricultural activities. In the millennia that followed, countries continued to vary regarding the farming methods and types of crops among others. Evidently, some regions benefitted from a favorable climate that attracted a wide range of animal and plant species. In the process, they thrived in both practices, i.e., domestication and agriculture.

History and Future of Medical and Recreational Marijuana

The fierce debate on the impact of legalizing medical and recreational marijuana has been going on for quite some time. The proponents of the legalization process argue that removing the prohibition on the drug will bring several benefits to the society that include; reduction in traffic fatalities, increased revenue via tax, and channeling state resources to fight serious crimes. In contrast, the opponents of the debate argue that lifting the ban on marijuana use has severe consequences such as increased use of the drug amongst the youth, many cases of accidents by the users, and expensive cost of treatment for addicts whose mental and physical health have been affected.  However, with the current trend by the public to vote for laws that legalize marijuana, there is a possibility that the criminalization of the drug may be reversed.

Colorado has been the leading State in the open discussion and formulation of policies and laws that favor the lifting of the criminalization of the drug. The citizens of this State voted for a Constitutional Amendment in November 2012 to legalize the recreational use of marijuana (Monte, Zane and Heard 241). The new law allowed people to cultivate, manufacture, and sell marijuana to individuals above the age of 21 (Monte, Zane and Heard 241). Voters in Washington followed the trend by voting for a similar amendment to the Constitution to legalize the recreational use of marijuana. The other States that have formulated laws that authorize the use of marijuana for medical and entertainment purposes include California, Nevada, and Massachusetts.

Information from the States that have legalized the use of recreational and medical marijuana indicates that the adverse effects of the policies outweigh the benefits (Ingold). In Colorado, for example, marijuana use by minors had increased by 20% between 2014 and 2015 (Monte, Zane and Heard 242). The government also verified that there was an increase in the number of hospital emergency visits and admissions that are related to Marijuana by 49% during the same period (Monte, Zane and Heard 242). This trend is caused by the laws that are ineffective and do not educate the public about the limits of the amendments and the consequences of misusing the drug (Aggarwal, Carter and Sullivan 157). Therefore, people are consuming marijuana in quantities that affect their health instead of using it for the recommended medical or recreation use.

If more or all the States adopt laws that allow the public to consume marijuana for health and entertainment purposes, the country will face many economic and social challenges. There are high chances that the education and morals of the U.S youth will be affected by the continued use of the drug. The country will also record the highest number of road accident fatalities because of impaired driving by adults who use marijuana. The emergency services at the hospitals will be exhausted by the rising cases of emergency admissions by victims of marijuana overdose and mental damage. Therefore, if the federal authorities legalize the use of this drug the public will misuse the privilege and the country will be negatively affected by high cases of road accidents and drug abuse by minors.

Legalization of medicinal and recreational marijuana is a sensitive issue that has both negative and positive consequences. The people should receive proper education on the social and economic implications of the drug before they make the important decisions. The medical use of the drug is significant, and the government should formulate laws that ensure it is not misused. However, the entertainment utilization of marijuana does not benefit the society because its disadvantages outweigh the benefits.

Cocaine and Heroin

Abstract

Drug consumption and addiction is a consistent behavior, characterized by uncontrollable or compulsive use and drug seeking regardless of its consequences. The condition can cause damage to the brain, and the effects can be long lasting. The research paper aims at determining the factors leading to the use of these drugs (cocaine and heroin). The overall goal is to create awareness on the importance of staying out of drugs due to its consequences that are long lasting and dangerous. The study will focus on the effects of using cocaine and heroin, the ingestion methods, mode of its transportation and the criminal activities associated with the aftermath of drug consumption. The research also seeks to find out ways of stopping and controlling the use of these drugs despite age race and gender.

Cocaine and Heroin

Introduction

A drug is a substance that when absorbed, consumed, smoked, injected, or inhaled through an area on the skin and melted through the tongue could result in a physiological change in an individual’s body. Hence, pharmacologists describe a drug or medicine as a chemical material used to prevent, cure and treat a disease to endorse an individual’s well-being. Traditionally drugs were extracted from medicinal plants. The three main categories of drugs are depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. The depressants slow down the nervous and brain systems. They include heroin, codeine, and morphine (DECP, n.d.). Conversely, stimulants stimulate the central and the brain’s nervous system by increasing communication speed among the two. Thus, increasing physical activity and alertness. Some of the examples of drugs in this category include cocaine, methamphetamine, and phentermine. Hallucinogens interfere with the brain’s nervous system resulting in distortions of reality perception. Sensations, sounds and profound images will be experienced, though they do not exist. For instance ketamine and mescaline (DECP, n.d.). Our research will focus on the comparison of the abuse factors between two categories of drugs (cocaine and heroin), their effects on the human body, identification, and packaging, methods of ingestion, trafficking, and criminality of the two drugs categories.

Compare and contrast abuse factors between two categories

Drug abuse has been over the years been referred to as a drug disorder. It is also known as an addictive behavior and dependency on alcohol. Substance abuse spares no one and spreads out faster in the society thus, not restricted by religion, race, profession and age. Drug abuse is the utilization of drugs where an individual takes the substances in large amounts more than the required amount, thus leading to addiction (DECP, n.d.).   Abuse of Heroin and cocaine is a serious global problem affecting the economic, social and health of people in the society. Heroin can be abused by injecting intravenously, smoked or inhaled in powder form. The methods mentioned above crosses over the blood vain quickly. When it gets into the brain as a transformed morphine, it fastens the receptors found in the body and the brain. While in cocaine, addiction is tough since it lacks symptoms of physical withdrawal, but it is involved in psychological properties. Cocaine is normally used with sedatives such as valium and alcohol compared to the heroin (DECP, n.d.).

Effects of heroin in the body including the symptoms

An effect is a transformation that occurs because of an activity or action. Heroin promotes lasting imbalances in hormonal and neuronal systems that are difficult to turn around. Hence, hinders deterioration of the white matter found in the brain, which might affect decision-making and the ability to control one’s behavior. Heroin produces physical and tolerance dependence.  Drug tolerance is the process, whereby more drugs are needed to acquire some effects.  While in physical dependence, the body is adapted to the existence of withdrawal and drug symptoms, which occurs when the usage is reduced instantly. Withdrawal symptoms include; vomiting, restlessness, insomnia, cold flashes accompanied with slight goose bumps, diarrhea, muscle pain, and bone pain. Over the years, heroin has been known to cause addiction. Addiction is compulsive involvement of stimuli in spite of its consequences (Leschka et al., 2013). Once an individual is addicted, exercising the administration of the drug happens to be their principle in life.

 

 

Effects of cocaine on the body including the symptoms

Addiction to cocaine leads to wanting more of the drug, edginess and can lead depression. Users mostly lack the ability to sleep comfortably, it is accompanied by convulsion and increased heart rate, promotes anger, anxiety, and hostility even if they are not high. It interferes with the processing of chemicals in the brain; this might lead to hyperactive excitability and hallucination. Individuals who sniff cocaine do not eat nor sleep early. It promotes paranoia, and the user has a high risk of experiencing stroke, heart attack or seizure.

Identification and packaging

Identification is referred to as a psychological method, where an individual or subject understands a parcel partially or wholly, depending on the information provided. Its odorless, shiny, and crystalline powder identifies cocaine. Typically, it resembles a flurry of snow, always in beige and small white rocks. It is often packaged in small bags, ornamented with a dollar sign or hearts pictures, or in clear black bags. On rare occasions, it is packaged into newspapers and plastic bags. The heroin is a brown to white powdery substance, which also goes by the street name horse, wrapped in tiny balloon-like packages to the consumer due to its resin content. The drug leaches during the wrapping of the paper. Drug portion is taken and measured out for a suitable increment. The balloon is later crooked on the wrong side on a bundle of heroin then a knot is tied, giving the dealer a quicker means of disposing of the drug when they meet head-on with the police. As a result, it makes the package look larger than what it is. Hence, the drug can be less prone to be sensed by the police trained dog (Leshner & Koob, 2015).

 

 

Methods of ingestion

Ingestion can also be described as the use of a substance in a greater quantity than the recommended amount. There is a high likelihood that the process can lead to a premature death. There are plenty ways heroin is ingested. These can be through injecting, using a needle, sniffing, or snorting and smoking (Lyman, 2011). All the above-listed methods of ingestion can be used to consume heroin. However, injections still the fastest mode of getting high with the drug. Intravenous and intramuscular are the conventional methods of injections frequently used. Intravenous act instantly as compared to intramuscular, which takes longer. Smoking and the rest of the ingestion methods take longer but not more than 15 minutes. Sniffing Cocaine is the most common method of its ingestion. The drug coats are engrossed through mucous membrane facing the nasal passages.

During insufflations of cocaine, combination occurs leading to a higher increased sufficiency. Another ingestion process is the use of sanitary tampons, long fingernails, specialized spoons pointed end keys, cut straws (sharing of this straws can lead to hepatitis c), hollowed-out pens, and rolled up banknotes (Leshner & Koob, 2015). Their consumers refer to the following devices as tooters. In the above process, the cocaine is decanted on a flat surface, separated into lines or bumps then insufflated. Can be administered through an injection providing a high level of blood level in a short period. The last discussed process is the inhalation method of administration, which is done by breathing in the vapor and sublimating solid through heating.

 

 

Drug trafficking

Drug Trafficking is global illicit trade connected to distribution, manufacturing, and cultivation of materials or substances to laws of drug prohibition. Most judges forbid drug trafficking apart from when it is authorized, and a license is presented (Chandra & Joba, 2015). Cocaine trafficking, especially in Colombia, is done through secretive aircraft and the remaining are smuggled or shipped using air carriers.  Cocaine is smuggled into the United States by South Africans private and commercial pilots, ex-militaries, and the unlicensed aviators. The efficiency, morbidity, and speed of air transportation have made it the most preferred means of transportation amongst the traffickers. The heroin is also transported through shipping techniques for instance heroin is shipped from southwest Asia to Bombay in India (Chandra & Joba, 2015).

Issues in criminality

Crime is an illegal act or a destructive act not to one person but to the entire community or a state. Involvement in crime is always punishable by law. Drugs and crime are always linked together, the users of cocaine and heroin often commit crime by involving in shoplifting, fraud, burglary, and theft to acquire money to purchase drugs. People always commit many violent offenses when they are under control of drugs. For instance, an individual can commit murder or domestic violence without meaning to do so (Chandra & Joba, 2015). Violence that can lead to death occurs between drug merchants and their clients for owing them money. Research done by Australian government indicated that not all crimes are associated with the use of drugs.

 

 

 

Conclusion

Drug abuse is the utilization of drug more than the expected amount. It is different from drug addiction. Addiction to drugs or dependence shows withdrawal symptoms in case of the drugs discontinuation. Anyone can be a drug user despite the gender, social group and age .drug abuse is a medical condition developed in time rather than a flaw of character. Causes of drug abuse include inadequate engagement with parents, lack of guidance among the adolescents, poor performance in school, availability of the abused drugs at school, home or in the community, and use of drugs by peer friends. Excessive intake of heroin and cocaine leads to deterioration of health, mental illness, and not limited to muscle pain. Heroin and cocaine addiction is chronic. Both can be administered to the body through injection and smoking. 50milion people abuse these drugs worldwide.  They are packaged differently depending on the preference of the consumer. Transportation of these drugs has been through shipping and airlifting all through the years. Involvement in criminal activities while high on these drugs is punishable by law.